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PALMS I'M GROWING IN ORLANDO
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The following is a partial list of palms I have growing in the ground.
Some are in containers, and are noted as such. I have included a few of the more commonly planted species if no other reason than to document certain aspects of their respective cultivation. Some of the palms on the following list are becoming very common in the gardens of coastal and more southern locales but nevertheless can be deemed as being a bit unusual for thriving this far north and inland. I have attempted to provide a brief history for each palm or at least some commentary regarding cultivation including cold tolerance, growth rate, ease of culture, etc.


The giant Caryota "Fishtail" Palms planted around Universal Studios' Islands of Adventure. The palm on the left is C.obtusa with fronds in excess of 20 ft and a stem so massive that one can barely lock their arms around it's base. The taller palm on the right is C.maxima. A few of the maxima have begun to flower at that size, possibly due to the transplant or just maybe they have reached their ultimate size for our climate.


Updated May 2008

Acrocomia (formerly Gastrococos) crispa
planted spring 1999 as a 4-leaf sdlg. Produced 3-4 leafs per yr. Reputedly grows in spurts, then rests but that has not happened here. Growth is very slow (un Acrocomia like), now about 5 ft overall. Undamaged by 29F low, and only some slight tip burn and spotting from 25f low. A good possibility for inland central Florida.

Acrocomia totai
planted in spring 1995 from a 3 gal. container about 2.5 ft. overall, now in excess of 20 ft.; Seems to gain speed as each year passes, producing up to 20 fronds before the reproductive process began in 2000, now foliage growth has slowed significantly. Survived all-time low of 23F in 2/96 with no damage. This variety is considered botanically synonymous w/ A.aculeata but it is much hardier to cold, has a gray-ish blue cast to the fronds. It also grows differently as a seedlng, forming strap rather than bifid leaves at the earliest stages of growth. It is smaller in all parts than "true" aculeata, and holds a much smaller crown of foliage when mature. Seed has begun to sprout after 3+ yrs in the ground!

Aiphanes horrida (formerly aculeata)
planted from a one gal. container in spring 1997 from seed germinated off parent tree in Cocoa Beach; present hgt. about 15 ft. overall. Produces approximately 6 fronds per yr.; Seems to require no special care other than semi shade (only while very young) and plenty of moisture during warmest weather. Survived lows of 28F & 29F w/ no damage, slight bud damage @ 26f. Was nearly defoliated by 25F low this past winter '03. Started flowering in summer '07, one at a time. Should have muliples this yr, and viable seed along with them.

Allagoptera arenaria
planted from a 3 gal. container in fall of 1995, maybe a foot tall at most. Now past 6 ft. overall, a clumping palm began bifurcating (underground) in late 2000. Began flowering and producing viable seed in summer of 1997. Survived low of 23F in 2/96 with slight frost burn to several but not all fronds. Continues to flower and grow in cooler weather. My favorite small palm. Undamaged from 25F low this past winter. Squirrels are mortal enemy of the edible (fresh only) fruit, chewing off the entire infructescence before they ripen.

Allagoptera (formerly Polyandrococos) caudescens
Slow growing pinnate palm from Brazil, has chalky white undersides to leaves. Planted small seedling palm maybe 1 ft overall, some slight foliare and subsequent bud damage from 25F low in 1/03. Fronds will eventually split but for now in its 4th yr they have remained entire in form, very attractive diamond shape reminiscent of close relatives Syagrus. Now about 2 ft overall, growing slowly but steady.

Archontophoenix alexandrae
planted from a 3 gal. container in spring 1996 about 2 ft. overall, now 6.5 ft. Produces 3 to 4 fronds per yr.; survived 28F & 29F lows w/ no damage other than a few cold spots on the foliage. Unfortunately this palm succumbed to pink rot fungus last summer. Previously lost a 5 ft. A.alexandrae to 26F & 23F lows. One-gallon palms showed moderate damage/bud rot from 25F low this past winter even though sheltered under an oak. Growth slows noticeably during droughts.

Planted a 2nd palm in Spring '06 from a 1g size. This palm shows cold damage at slightest freeze, basically anything at 30f or below. Presently alive albeit with only two leaves.

Archontophoenix cunninghamiana
Growing variety Illawarra from seed. These were slightly damaged (less so than adjacent same sized alexandrae specimens) at 25F this past winter. This particular type must have some shade during hottest part of the day to grow well here long term. The regular cunninghamiana can take full sun after 3 or 4 yrs age. I am experimenting with a 2nd clump planted in mostly full sun, these are receiving extra water.

The original palms planted in situ are now approx. 8 ft overall and growing slowly but steadily, even in cool months. Also growing next to the Illawarras is a probably hyrbid of alexandrae & cunninghamiana. It appears as an exact replica of the latter but possesses silver undersides. It is performing at the same rate as the Illawarras.

Archontophoenix maxima
from appearances this palm seems to be a copy of A.cunninghamiana but w/ more tolerance to sun exposure. It is planted in a mostly full sun location w/ no ill effects to date. The fronds twist at an angle, then bend down gracefully about halfway out from the stem. Also the petioles are much shorter. A new addition, planted in spring of '99 at 6 ft. overall, it has opened 4 fronds in 2000. Frost damaged by past winter but no ill effects from frost-less cold/freezes to 29F. However this palm incurred heavy damage (but was not defoliated) during last winter's 25F low, approximately 12 hrs below freezing. It performed the best out of all the crownshaft type palms except P.sargentii. Currently this palm has been overtaken by a Live Oak and is now mostly shaded. It has about 6 ft of wood but has yet to flower, most likely due to lack of full sun exposure.

Archontophoenix myolensis
New addition in Spring 2003; presently about 3 ft overall. Has silver coloring to abaxial (undersides) of fronds, seems very similar in appearance to alexandrae in overall form. Appears to have the genus penchant for robust growth and wet soil certainly benefits it. This palm later died in the Summer following 25f freeze.

Archontophoenix purpurea and A. tuckeri
These are currently in containers, the purpurea already has a striking color to the crownshaft as a 7g palm. The tuckeri opens a slightly reddish leaf as a 3g palm.

Areca triandra
Tropical palm in nature, this specimen is a prolific clusterer. Damaged by cold at 28f degrees is now planted underneath the largest Bismarckia for frost protection. New addition, planted Spring 2000 at 3 ft overall showed excellent cold tolerance this past winter losing a few stems but many remain and several have already produced new foliage during Spring 2001.

Was moved to under oak in Summer 2002, and thus was spared a probable defoliation from 25F low past winter; instead heavy spotting on all leafs but no stem losses, recovery never in doubt. Currently 6 ft overall, also started to flower in '07 but has yet to set seed. Clumpers often need a 2nd stem to do this, it has one but not large enough to flower .

Arenga caudata
planted in summer 1996 from 3 gal. container w/ two stems about 2.5 ft. overall; A slow grower it now has 5 stems, the tallest about 5.5 ft; it began to flower in spring of '99. This is a hapaxanthic genus so each stem will die once it's reproductive process is finished. Survived lows of 28F & 29F w/no major damage but is prone to cold spots all over the foliage, is sensitive to frost exposure. Largest stems were killed outright by 25F low this past winter. Currently has some seed set on the oldest stem, these have yet to reach much past 5 ft overall hgt.

Arenga engleri
planted in summer 1994 from a 3 gal. container, approx. 2.5 ft. overall; a clumping palm the tallest stem now slightly over 10 ft. Originally planted w/ 3 stems that number has easily tripled. A slow grower initially, seemed to speed up last year, each successive frond nearly doubled in size. Foliage bleaches slightly in full summer sun. Undamaged by 23F low in 2/96 or severe 25F advective low in 1/03. One of the most underused palms in our region, it should be planted in public and private gardens much more than it presently is. The oldest stem began to flower in '07, currently setting seed on 1 inflorescence.

Arenga micrantha
Grown from original seed distribution several yrs ago, has become a striking palm w/ heavy maroon tomentose on back of leaf stems. Now about 3 ft overall, grows 2-3 leafs per yr. Undamaged by 25F advective low in 1/03. Has yet to clump, resembles engleri in overall form, slightly larger and a bit more colorful. Has yet to clump.

Arenga pinnata
Germinated from seed in Fall 1998 a slow grower initially it survived 28 & 29f lows as a potted seedling w/ no damage; heavy some spotting from a 26F & 25F lows. Somewhat sensitive to frost exposure but usually doe not defoliate. A large, mature palm located @ Leu Gardens gives me hope for this one. I have one palm left from the original seed distribution of mature palm in Cocoa Beach.

Astrocaryum mexicanum
Planted in Spring 2003 at 3 ft overall, now about 7 ft. Has performed well here, some yellowing in full summer sun. Does OK with winter cold, foliage easily damaged at temps below 30f but quickly recovers. Started to flower in '07 but one inflorescence at a time so no seed as yet.

Attalea butyracea
Originally described as Scheelea liebmannii. Planted summer 1996 as a 4-leaf sdlg.; produces but two fronds per year, now about 4 ft. overall. Producing fully formed feather fronds in late 2000. Survived 26F low in 1/97 w/ minor frost burn on approx. 30% foliage. No damage at 28 degrees. Was nearly defoliated by 25F low in 1/03. The growth bud should stay buried beneath the soil level for many years.
Currently at 6 ft overall, making 3-4 leaves per yr. Foliage damaged at 30f or below.

Attalea humilis
Planted in summer 2000, a seedling w/ its first 3 leafs, grows 3-4 per yr. It is a rare Oil Palm from Brazil with a subterranean stem through its entire life. That characteristic makes it a good candidate for areas with annual freezes/frosts. This palm made it thru last winter undamaged; it was planted underneath Livistona decipiens for some minimal frost protection. Little change over the yrs, now about 3 ft overall.

Attalea speciosa
This is the oldest of the 4 seedlings that germinated from the same seed in 2001. It was completely undamaged from multiple frosts/freezes (down to 25F), one of the remarkable occurrences in the collection. A definite possibility for this region, and possibly the most cold hardy of the tree-form Attalea palms. This palm is next to and under a Silk Floss Tree so is sheltered from sun and possible frost (until the Silk Floss loses it's leaves. Its now about 6 ft overall, gaining less than 1 ft per yr in hgt.

Bactris setosa
A new addition in Spring 2001, a small seedling that like most all other Bactris is very fast growing and a quick clumper to boot. Began forming divided feather leafs in 2003, clumps at a prolific rate (more than 3 or 4 per yr). Its native range in Brazil is farther south than any other Bactris extending well down the Atlantic slope. Heavy damage (but quick recovery) from 25F low in 1/03. Is now growing in deep shade so very slow growth, only 4 ft overall now. Plus the very dry soil is of little help. Needs a swampy location, not a possibilty here.

Beccariophoenix madagascariensis (original windows form)
planted in spring 1999 at 6 ft. overall, now approximately 15 ft with a large, spreading canopy resembling a Coconut Palm more than any other. Growing in mostly shaded locale, no special requirements. Now up over the roof and getting more full sun. It is sensitive to frost exposure, was nearly defoliated by 25F low in 1/03, and some slight bud damage as well. Nevertheless a definite possibility for protected areas in central Fla.

Bismarckia nobilis (silver/blue form)
3 palms currently in the ground. The oldest was planted in Sept. 1993 at approx. 4 ft. of hgt.; it produces 12 to 15 fronds per year and is now approx. 25 ft. overall with a spread of 20 ft. It began flowering in 2005 and is a female. The 2nd palm has grown at the same rate and displays the same cold tolerance. It flowered in 2006 and is a male. Almost every frond on these are produced between June & Dec. Both went through 23F low in 2/96 with no more than tip burn on a few of the oldest fronds. I have left out many 1-leaf sdlgs exposed to a 26F low w/ heavy frost and they were undamaged. There is some variability w/in the species, over the yrs some potted seedlings from various sources can be damaged by  freezes yet many more were not, even some from the same seed source.

My palms have produced viable seed for the 1st time in Summer 2008. At least 200 probably more seed has fallen during June.

Borassus aethiopum
germinated and planted in situ in the Fall of 2005 from parent trees in Wabasso, Fl. Growth has been very slow, only 1 leaf per yr. A 2nd seedling grown via palms residing at FTG has started to form palmate leaves in Spring 2008. Both exhibit cold damage below 30f.

Brahea brandegeei
reputedly the only member of this dry, desert inhabiting genus to grow well in humid Fla. Planted in spring 1997 about 1.5 ft overall; it produces 6 to 7 fronds per year but not much hgt.; it's now about 7 ft. tall. Probably would grwo quicker if in full sun. When younger the foliage was prone to fungal problems during the summer rains or via overhead irrigation; undamaged by temps down to 25F. Also growing B.armata presently in a 15-gal. container, holds but a half dozen fan leafs at a time.

Butia capitata
not a native but almost could be as it's culture is so easy for this area. No special care is needed, flowers at an early age for most large growing palms. Slow to develop above ground stem but produces well over a dozen fronds each year. Adapts to full sun conditions and thrives on neglect but does look best w/ adequate moisture and fertilizing. Planted a 3g size palm in summer of 1993, now about 15 ft overall. Has been flowering for about 5 yrs now.

Butiagrus "Mule" palm
planted spring 1999 at 4 ft. overall. Perfectly hardy for this area, undamaged by 26F - 25 low and severe frost. As usual this one seems to be fairly intermediate between the two parents in form and growth rate. Now approx. 12 ft overall. Began to flower in 2006.

Calyptronoma rivalis
germinated from habitat (P.R.) seed in 2005 now about 3 ft overall. Steady grower, only holds 4 to 5 healthy fronds at a time. No damage from lows to 29f.

Caryota mitis
not so common here as an outdoor specimen, found nearly everywhere as an interior subject. Planted in the spring of 1994 at 2 ft. overall; the 3 tallest stems reached approximately 22 ft. overall, then began to flower simultaneously. The palm was completely defoliated by 25F in 1/03 but several months later it appears all stems will survive, the 3 that are flowering have continued the process. 2 to 3 fronds emerge per year on each stem but obviously gains a lot of height from each frond. A prolific clumper, was originally planted w/ 3 or 4 stems, now has about 10-12. Was completely defoliated by 3 successive freezes in 95-96, losing most of it's foliage to the 1st one w/ a low of 29F. In May '96 there were 4 or 5 stems without foliage, the tallest maybe knee-high. Seems to gain approx. 3 to 4 ft. each year. Basically defoliated each winter/freeze but made it through one (29.5 low) with very minor damage. The palm seems to increase in hardiness with each passing year, perhaps due to a build up of sugars inside the stem? Despite 6 mild freezes from 2000-01 the palm remains more green than brown on the sides not exposed to frost. My palm is in an exposed NW location, it might perform even better in a shady, protected spot.

Caryota maxima (aka C.ochlandra, "Himalayana")
A solitary species that grows erect, similar to a bamboo culm; has fronds over 10 ft in length that graciously bend down about halfway out, forming a cascading effect. Very fast once past first few yrs in age, mature palms flower here around 40 ft overall; which translates into a life expectancy of about 15 yrs from seed, give or take a few. I have small palms around 3 yrs of age, they showed slight streaking/foliage damage around 26-25F, comparable to obtusa but slightly behind them in cold tolerance. Heavy frost can cause severe damage. Can take full sun if well watered but like all Caryota they prefer partial shade until some stem has formed. Have one palm grown from seed germinated in 2004, planted as a 1g palm maybe 1 ft overall. Now about 6 ft overall hgt, growing in mostly shade so produces but 2 fronds per yr. Undamaged by freezes down to 28f.

Caryota obtusa (aka C.gigas, "Thai Mt. Giant")
A solitary species w/ huge leafs to nearly 20 ft. Small palms (around 1.5 ft.) made it thru 26f-25f lows with only cold marks/spotting to the foliage. Caryota palms seem to noticeably increase their cold hardiness as they age, this should be a good one for here. Planted a 1g size palm in 2006 about 1 ft overall, makes 2 leaves per yr.

Caryota ophiopellis, C.zebrina
New additions at seedling size in Spring 2003. Not much if any cold tolerance is expected. Typical slow growth as seedlings, 2-3 leafs per yr.

Chamaedorea benziei

A fairly recent discovery (post Hodel lit.) that it is unusual to its genus as it develops a relatively large stem. Small palms around 1 ft. overall made it thru multiple light freezes/frosts with no problems; moderate damage from 25F advective cold in 1/03. Lightning quick growth as seedlings, they go from seed to flowering maturity in about 3 yrs. After that there is very slow growth, two to three fronds per yr. This palm can handle some direct sunlight after the frst few yrs as well.

Chamaedorea cataractarum
planted summer 1996 about 2 ft. overall, now about 4 ft. at most. Has developed several new stems and flowers each year. Planted in a mostly shady, wet spot. Sometimes develops fungal leaf spot if kept too wet. Little to no damage from a 26F low, perhaps hardier than originally thought. Seems to require no special care. Can handle some direct sun if well irrigated.

Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti

Small palms w/ its first 4 leafs made it thru last winter okay, some slight yellowing. Very tropical looking w/ its completely undivided leafs; no doubt it will perish if left in the open exposed but underneath an oak canopy they all performed just fine in light frosts/freezes to 28F. Major damage and subsequent bud rot from 25F advective low in 1/03 (palm is re-growing ok). Slow growth once mature (typical of genus), definite shade lover.

Chamaedorea glaucifolia
Planted in '98 as a small seedling it has now turned into a slender tree palm w/ waxy blue petioles, now about 7 ft overall. No damage from any cold, it is planted underneath an oak canopy so no frost exposure; did incur major damage/bud rot from 25F low in 1/03 but recovered fine. Fast grower until flowering, no special needs.

Chamaedorea metallica
Unusual palm, bifid leafs throughout its life; slow growth, less than 1 ft per yr. Have 3 palms about 3 ft overall each. Damaged by any exposure to frost or temps below 28F. Any afternoon sun burns the foliage, prefers shade.

Chamaedorea microspadix
Extremely hardy shade loving palm, clusters and fruits quickly (approx. 3 yrs from seed). Reported to make a terrific indoor palm but since it is cold hardy to the teens here mine stays outside. Foliage can yellow if soil is too acidic, add dolomitic limestone once a year to prevent this.

Chamaedorea plumosa
Another small slender tree palm, very much resembling a mini-Queen palm as it ages. Extremely fast growth, the fastest of the genus in my collection. Also takes some full sun, rare for this genus. These are small palms under 2 yrs of age just developing divided feather leafs. No damage at 28F lows but under an oak for frost protection. Heavy damage/bud rot from advective 25F low in 1/03 but has recovered nicely.

Chamaedorea radicalis

A mature female planted Spring 2000. Perhaps the most cold hardy of it's genus. This is the subterranean form, has a heel-root ala Sabal, other dry habitat palms. The leafs are stiff and V-shaped upon emerging, with a slight glaucous cast to them. No damage to as low as 25F.

Chamaedorea stolonifera
planted in the fall 1996 at 2 ft. overall, now about 4-5 ft. Produces new stolons throughout the year. Slight damage by 26F low or any frost exposure. Foliage bleaches when over-exposed to sun, usually early a.m. hours are okay. No cultural problems or special requirements.

Chamaerops humilis var. cerifera

another palm that could be a native here due to ease of culture. Very slow grower in overall height and frond production. Small tight fan leafs, it seems this palm will take much longer to develop some size than its more common counterpart, C.humilis. No special requirements needed, incredibly drought tolerant but can be prone to scale insects when small or kept overly wet. No damage from 12 hr 2F low in 1/03. Forms 2 suckers per yr when young.

Chambeyronia macrocarpa
Had great success this past winter w/ a larger specimen (now sold), as an interior subject, no problems with low light levels or lack of humidity from being indoors. Now growing many seedlings that were germinated in 1999. Damage from heavy frost exposure or temps below 29F, otherwise fine. Planted one palm in 2003, now 5 yrs later is about 6 ft overall, no wood formed yet.

Chuniophoenix hainanensis and C.nana (humilis)

planted spring of 2000 as a sdlg w/ its first two leafs; produces 3-4 leafs per yr; split (fan) leafs begin during 3rd-4th yrs from seed. This is a tillering palm ala Sabal, Allagoptera, etc. so is susceptible to salt-burn from over fertilizing or quick release products. No visible stem at this date, leaves still apppear to emerge from below ground. Current overall hgt. about 3 ft. No damage from 25f low.

Chuniophoenix nana (humilis)
very similar to Rhapis palms in growth habit. No problems this past winter down to 25F but small and somewhat sheltered. palm has suckered several times, overall growth very slow.

Coccothrinax argentata
planted the first of 2 palms in spring of 1994, barely 1 ft. tall; the 2nd planted summer 1996 at 2.5 ft. overall hgt.; each palm produces 5 to 7 fronds per yr.; frond production has slightly increased over the past few yrs. (now that some stem has formed on each). Extra water and fertilizer has no effect. Have withstood all day full sun from an early age. The first planting survived 23F low w/ no damage; the 2nd palm survived 26F low w/ no damage. The palms are not exactly alike in appearance; the 2nd palm has more silver on the abaxial sides and the leaflets are more rigid than the other, very slightly upturned at the edges. Could possibly be a hybrid of some sorts; the 1st palm was germinated from seed taken from the Keys. The original specimen was damaged by severe frost this past winter and seems to lack true argentata characteristics as it ages. The 2nd specimen was undamaged the entire winter and seems to resemble true argentata more and more. The latter was undamaged by severe advective cold 25F low) in 1/03, the former showed some albeit minor foliage burn. It has yet to flower (too little direct sunlight. The true argentata has flowered since '06 but only the one inflorescence at a time so no seeds.

Coccothrinax borhidiana
small palm approximately 1.5 ft in overall hgt; moved into a larger pot (10 gal.) to encourage and handle the rapid root development of this species. Accidentally left out in 26f low w/ heavy frost, very light damage to only a few leaflets. Planted in 2005, no damage from lows to 29f. Growth is very slow less than 1 ft per yr.


Coccothrinax crinita
germinated from seed in summer 1996 now maybe 2 ft overall. Leaf production has increased each year from 3 to 5. Fiber hairs beginning to develop in 3rd yr. Survived 25F lows w/ no damage from this past winter. One C.crinita var. brevicrinis growing in full sun, planted at less than 1 ft tall in 2005. No damage down to 29f.

Coccothrinax inaguensis
new addition planted Spring 2000. Leaflets fold "up" like an inverted umbrella. Only member of its genus with green undersides to the leafs (instead of silver). Closely related to C.argentata according to Henderson lit, it is native to the Bahamas. Some slight tip burn from this past winter (26f low), typically slow Coccothrinax grower. Now about 7 ft overall, some wood at the base. Seems to be one of the quicker Coccothrinax.

Coccothrinax miraguama var. roseocarpa
softer foliage as compared to var. havanensis, completely circular leaves. Slow growth, shaded by live oak. Planted in 2002 as small seedling, now about 5 ft overall. Petioles do stretch in the shade.

Coccothrinax scoparia
New addition in fall 2002, no damage from mid 20s lows, about 1 ft overall and containerized. Planted in 2005, now about 2 ft overall hgt. Very slow growth.

Coccothrinax spissa
Left out several small seedlings about 3 yrs of age they handled 26f low (without frost) just fine. They were protected from following cold but this species has possibilities for here. They formed fan leafs in their 3rd yr. Planted one out in 2005 at 1 ft overall, now about 2 ft. Typical slow growth.

Coccothrinax argentata X Thrinax morrisii
definite hybrid palm, can be found in Big Pine Key where both parents grow sympatrically. Very slow in overall hgt. gained, makes about 9-10 fronds per yr and appears to resemble more of the Thrinax genus (criss-crossed leaf bases as well). But leaf form is definite argentata.

Copernicia alba
planted fall of 1996 at 2.5 ft. overall, now about 15 ft. Produces dozens of fronds per yr. Handled lows to 25f and severe frost with no damage. Responds well to extra water and fertilizer. Takes all day full sun as a sdlg. Very underused palm, should be planted out a lot more; has a compact, slim form compared to Washingtonia. Palm flowered 1st time in summer '07.

Copernicia baileyana

planted in fall of 1996 about 1.5 ft. overall, now about 6 ft. Took about 1 yr to recover from transplant. Survived 25F low in 1/03 with minimal damage to foliage. Extra water and fertilizer have had no effect as yet. Needs extra K fertilizer in summers. Now picking up some speed after being the ground for several yrs. Also growing C.gigas, very similar in form to baileyana but smaller in all parts. But this palm now shaded by live oak, probbaly will be moved.

Copernicia cowellii
purchased as a 1-gallon seedling with its first 3 leafs when it first became available. Shows some damage around 25-26 low. Very slow growth, 3 to 4 leaves per yr. Still in 3-gal. container.

Copernicia hospita
purchased in 2005 as a 3-gal. palm just splitting leaves.Stepped up to a 10 gal. in 2007, now over 2 ft overall hgt. Typical slow growth but no damage down to 25f. Also seems to resist the K deficiency typical of this genus.

Copernicia macroglossa
germinated seed in fall of 1996, palm now barely past 1 ft of hgt. Some 1-leaf sdlgs died from 26F low, and some lived. Survived 28F low w/ no damage, slight yellowing at 26 to 25f. Produced 3 split leafs last year. Prefers a wet somewhat acidic growing environment. One palm planted in situ (next to driveway) has grown much faster than other palm, surpassing it in half the time.

Copernicia yarey
Suggested to be sunk into synonymy w/ hospita by Henderson, et.all. Foliage has green color so far, not the normal silver of hospita. Planted spring of 1997 as 3 leaf sdlg.; growth rate is extremely slow, 3 fronds per yr. Some damage from 26f and 25f lows, unprotected and surrounded by frost damaged turf. Now ten yrs later still no stem. Incredibly slow growth.

Corypha utan
planted in the fall of 1996 about 2.5 ft. hgt. Made it through 3 subsequent freezes of the following winter including my all time 23F low; because of it's small stature it was easy to wrap; without that protection it would have been seriously damaged if not killed outright. It has now survived 26F and 25F lows unprotected albeit totally defoliated. Produces 8 to 9 fronds per year equal to 1.5/ 2 ft. overall hgt. each year. Now about 20 ft. overall, would be taller but loses most of its new growth to any freeze the following winter. Some stem starting to form at the base so the bud is now probably above ground, and possibly in danger of freezing. Only slight foliar damage from lows ranging 29-32f over the past 6 winters. Growing C.umbraculifera from seed, palms now about 3 yrs old in 3-gal. pots. They show damage at anything below 32.

Cryosophila stauracantha
planted spring of 1996 about 2 ft. overall hgt.; produced as many as six fronds during the 1st & 2nd years in the ground; slow growth overall, now total hgt about 5 ft. Survived 26F & 25f lows unprotected, though in a sheltered spot underneath P.reclinata palm. Delicate foliage, easily ripped by winds. Growing C.warscewiczii from seed, palms 3 yrs old in 1-gal. pots. No damage at lows to 29f. Very slow growers.

Dypsis ankaizinensis
planted as a 1 ft tall palm in fall of 1999. Defoliated but quickly recovering from 25F low in 1/03. has formed 3 more stems since planted in the ground. Has a heel-root ala Sabal, Acrocomia, etc., has proved to be extremely drought tolerant over the summers. Now approx. 10 ft overall in hgt. Seems to be picking up speed as size increases. Believed to be a form of D.madagascariensis.

Dypsis crinita
planted summer of 1998 as a 2 leaf sdlg.; produces 3 leafs per yr., now past 1 ft. overall. New growth emerges w/ a slightly reddish tinge. Survived 28F low w/ no damage albeit planted under other foliage for frost protection. Formerly Vonitra utilis ??? NOTE: palm never quite recovred from 25f low, died one yr later, not much damage to note but basically stopped growing. Drought conditions didn't help it, purportedly a water loving palm.

Dypsis decaryi
planted summer of 1993 at approx. 6 ft. hgt. Produces 6 to 7 fronds per year, now in excess of 20 ft. overall. No response to extra fertilizer & water. Appears to be more resilient to cold than previously thought. Survived low of 23F w/ nearly 100% defoliation. Is undamaged at 28F, moderate frost burn appears at 26F. In 2000-01 winter a 26f low without frost damaged over 50% of the canopy, the ensuing 5 freezes left the palm defoliated for intents and purposes. But it has already formed 3 new fronds and is continuing its flowering process that began in Spring 2000. UPDATE: many sdlgs germinated on the ground from this palm during Spring/Summer of 2002. A 25F advective low defoliated the palm in 1/03 but it has recovered without any setbacks. Freeze damage does appear on woody trunk in form of cracks, often associated with mositure retention (under leaf bases). Really no way to prevent this. Can conclude this palm is "bud-hardy" as foliage will regriw from annual cold but is not trunk hardy, may pose problems in the future with stem longevity.

Dypsis decipiens
planted in May 1999 from one gallon pots; palms w/ appear to have the first 4 or 5 leafs, all bifid. No damage from 25F low in 1/03 or the severe frost from Winter 2000-01. Palms grown in the shade will develop split leafs sooner than palms grown in full sun. Growth rate in-ground vs. pots is the same so far. Also sun vs. shade shows no difference. Oldest palms only 3-4 ft overall hgt., extremely slow growers. One of three palms has split with 2 growing points now observed.

Dypsis "Mahajanga"
Regarded as a possible a form of D.madagascariensis, palm began to sucker around 4 yrs old. Colorful pink-blue leaf stems as they emerge. Curly plumose leaflets resembling Allagoptera arenaria, and grouped in ranks similar to Chamaedorea klotzschiana. No leaf damage from the cold down to 28F but some foliar damage below that level. Can develop bud rot from too much overhead irrigation during the winter. A tillering species ala D.decipiens, ankaizinensis. Now about 6 ft overall.

Dypsis onilahensis
Seems to resemble the ubiquitous D.lutescens w/ a white-ish yellow leaf stem and crownshaft but much slower growth. Leaflets grace fully droop as they age. These small palms around 2-3 ft. overall, were left out all winter, no foliage damage at 26-25F (under an oak for protection). Begin to clump in 3rd or 4th yr.

Elaeis guineensis
Foliage is very tender to any frost, displays minor damage @ 29F and 28F lows. I suspect it may never increase in cold tolerance as it matures but can recover from cold as it makes a large amount of fronds per yr (approx. 20). So it can be considered as "bud'hardy" for this area. Planted one 4 ft specimen grown from seed via palms at FIT campus in Melbourne growing in full shade to protect from frost; overall growth is much slower naturally, palm is now about 6 ft overall.

Euterpe edulis
planted spring 1999 at 7 ft. overall; produced 4 fronds, now about 9 ft. tall. Undamaged by 29F low, underneath live oak canopy. Some slight tip burn from this past winters cold (including 26f low). Now firmly established it should increase growth rate somewhat in 2001. DEATH NOTE: Nine leafs produced in 2002 growing season but alas this palm succumbed to severe advective freeze of 1/03 (25F low, below freezing for 12 hrs). Probably not suitable this far north and inland.

Gaussia maya
planted summer 1996 @ 3 ft. overall hgt. , now approx. 6 ft. overall. Growth slowed due to transplant in summer 99; severe root cutback but produced 2 fronds after wards. Normally produces 4-5 fronds per yr. Survived 26F low w/ moderate foliage burn, undamaged @ 28F. Very prone to sunburn. The 6 freezes from this past winter took its toll, leaving one good frond but no spear damage at all, this palm remains a possibility for inland central Florida. Was defoliated by 25F advective low in 1/03, also severe bud rot. One new leaf has emerged so far, recovery still in doubt. DEATH NOTE: palm subsequently died from this damage.

Geonoma schottiana

Small palm about 1 ft overall planted in summer 2000. Some slight tip burn from last winters cold it is underneath oak canopy. Geonoma palms are South America's equivalent of Central America's Chamaedorea palms. This species habitat is located farther south than any of the others. UPDATE: palm subsequently died during the following Summer, appears to be unsuitable for our climate at this time. Perhaps can be used as an indoor palm???

Guihaia argyrata

planted spring 1996 at 1 ft. overall w/ several tiny suckers. Hgt. now 2.5 ft.; very slow grower but seems to have developed a few more suckers. Undamaged by 25F low. Foliage can bleach some in afternoon summer sun. prefers alkaline growing conditions.

Howea forsteriana
Small palms around 2-3 ft overall made it thru 26F low and some slight frost exposure okay, there are some cold marks and tip burn on a few. They are planted underneath oaks & citrus for sunburn as well as frost protection. One palm exposed to advective 25F low had several fronds turn brown but not entire crown. Recovered fast, overall hgt now about 9 ft. Growth is slow but steady even in cooler weather.

Hyophorbe lagenicaulis
purchased August 1995 from Sou. Fla. auction at 1.5 ft overall, now about 4 ft. overall. Kept potted due to cold sensitivity, produces 4 fronds each year and does not seem to mind being root bound. A much older palm recovered from 26F low after being left for dead and taking nearly 6 months to being new growth. That palm was subsequently killed by next winter's freezes (29F caused major damage, 27F probably killed it before the 23F even arrived).

Hyophorbe verschaffeltii

planted in spring 1993 @ 4 ft., about 12 ft. overall. Produces 4 to 6 fronds per year. Extra water & fertilizer have not increased the growth rate. Damaged by slightest frost or freeze, moderate burn at 29 or 28F, close to total defoliation at temps lower. Recovery has never been in doubt even @ 23F. Keeps only 5 or 6 fronds at a time so a new canopy is produced almost yearly. Survives defoliated and recovers over one growing season (unlike the Bottle palm brethren). Also growing a Hyophorbe verschaffeltii X lagenicaulis hybrid palm (about 2 ft. overall), showing the leaf form of a Spindle palm but the coloring of a Bottle palm. Very cold sensitive to anything below freezing.

Hyphaene coriacea
one of several species that branch but do so below ground level. Planted in spring 1994 about 1 ft. overall. Now up over 12 ft. Originally a single stem, the second one formed in summer 1996 after the winter w/ 3 freezes incl. 23F low which defoliated the palm as well as killing the exposed spear. New growth initially distorted but quickly recovered. Undamaged @ 28F low, about 50% damaged by 26f, about 75% damage at 25F advective low. Recovers quickly however. Each stem produces 5 or 6 fronds per year. The largest and oldest stem began bifurcating in summer 1999. Have kept it cut back to three visible stems, two more trying to emerge. Flowered (female) in 2006.

Hyphaene compressa
small palm just starting to form palmate leaves was planted in summer 2007. This palm is one of the two species (the other is thebaica) that are prized for their habit of branching above ground many times over. Unfortunately both species are also little tolerant of cold.

Jubaeopsis caffra
small palm planted as a strap leaf seedling in Spring 2007. Now one yr later is forming pinnate leaves. No problems with cold down to 29f last winter.

Kentiopsis oliviformis
small palm planted summer 2006 just forming pinnate leaves. Slow growth, making just 3-4 fronds per year. No problems with cold down to 29f.

Kerriodoxa elegans
planted one palm in 2002 as a small seedling, palm is now no more than 2ft overall, very slow growth hgt.-wise but does make 6 or 7 fronds per yr. Even this small the palm has already developed heavy waxy coating on abaxial (lower) leaf surfaces with dark veins and gorgeous purple colored petioles. No damage from a shaded, sheltered 26f & 25f lows, in the open they would have surely burned but apparently these possess more cold tolerance than originally thought. They grow in habitat alongside Caryota mitis.

Licuala ramsayi
small palm planted summer 2007 at 1 ft overall. Slow grower, has split leaves at this stage but yet to form the entire circular pattern of pleated fronds they are famous for. Taken temps down to 29f without any problems so far. Also growing Licuala grandis in a container (very cold senstive).

Licuala spinosa
planted summer 1997, barely a foot tall. Now about 3 ft overall. Growth is slower than normal in total shade, was moved in summer 2000 to a partial sun location and is producing only 3 or 4 fronds but seems to be more vigorous. This palm has never grown well for me, perhaps it is just too dry here as I believe they are swamp palms in habitat. Also has formed only one offset so far. Very slight damage from lows to 26f.

Livistona australis
Transplanted specimen with about 4 ft of trunk; most fronds were removed to minimize stress. Palm has no damage from 25F low or frost exposure. One of several Aussie Liv's that seem to struggle here in the dry sand with very low water table. Fails to hold much more than 8-10 healthy fronds at a time, most turning yellow-green well before dropping off. Might benefit from a move to a more shady spot...

Livistona chinensis
another possible "native exotic" palm, it has naturalized in some areas of Orlando where consistent moisture is available. Slow grower in full sun, but in shady conditions the petioles elongate and frond production increases especially with regular irrigation.

Livistona decora (formerly decipiens)
planted Nov. 1998 @ approx. 6 ft overall, now approx. 20 ft. Yet to flower. After many failed attempts to grow this palm one of three quickly became established by semi-daily watering during its entire 1st month in the ground. It is picking up foliage productivity as it ages, it seems w/ each passing month it opens a frond quicker than the last. Palms adjusted to full summer sun w/ no problem. Produces in excess of 25 fronds per yr, even grows in Winter; gains about 1.5 ft over all hgt. per yr. Undamaged at 25F advective low.

Livistona fulva
planted in Spring 1998 about 1 ft overall is now 2 ft. Appears to be a slow grower (maybe too much shade) and has lost most of its fronds (probably due to inadequate irrigation). Most all Livistona are true water-lovers and it is nearly impossible to over-water the root system. Extra irrigation is being provided this year. Formerly known as "Blackdown-Tablelands" this palm is beginning to develop a copper colored tomentum on the abaxial leaf sides. No damage from 26f low/moderate frost exposure. Note: palm died shortly after transplant attempt in 2002.

Livistona inermis
small palm germinated in 2004 via habitat seed. Just formed palmate leaves for 1st time in 2007. Small palm even at maturity with wispy leaflets, shows damage at anything below 29f.

Livistona jenkinsiana
germinated summer of 1999, planted as seedling palm with its first 2 leafs; now about 5 ft overall, slow growth in mostly live oak shade. No problems down to 29f lows. Some slight cosmetic damage from 26f low/severe frost; close relative (perhaps conspecific) L.speciosa was killed by these same conditions.

Livistona mariae & rigida
planted spring 1996 @ 3 ft overall, now approx. 20 ft. Produces around 20 total fronds per yr. Has been undamaged by 25F low, seems resistant to heavy frost as well. Planted L.rigida in summer 1996 @ 3 ft overall. Appears to grow at same pace as mariae. Did not hold it's juvenile maroon colored fronds as long as mariae. Other than that there seems to be no difference between the two. L.rigida is undamaged @ 25F as well. Both palms flowered for the 1st in Spring 2007 but only one infloresescence. In 2008 each has about six total, possible they could form seed.

Livistona nitida
planted in Spring 1999 less than one foot in hgt., now 5 ft overall. Some spotting from heavy frost exposure or lows around 25F. Formerly known as "Carnarvon Gorge" it is identical to L.australis in growth habit, impossible to separate vegetatively. Another that struggles with dry sandy soils, probably would benefit from more shade or higher water table.

Livistona saribus (green petiole form)
Fast growing and surprisingly cold hardy. Prefers shade when young, grows up into full sun conditions. Undamaged at 23F even as small seedling palm. in summer of 2007 planted a seedling of L.rotundifolia X saribus from Australia palm. Some trouble with full sun here but hoping it adapts this yr. No damage on it from 29f low.

Livistona victoriae
Small seedling left out in the open made it thru 26f low and severe frost w/ only some damage. The palm began to develop fan leaves in its 3rd yr. Has a marked purple coloring to the petioles, and scurf along ;leaf veins. Develops fungal spotting on leaves during wettest summer weather. Appears to be aligned with L.mariae in growth habit, though not nearly as fast. Some minor spotting below 29f. Doesn't appear to be one of the more cold hardy Liv's.

Lytocaryum weddellianum
small palm planted summer 2007 at 1 ft overall. No damage from 29f low.

Medemia argun
planted fall of 1998 at just under one ft overall. Opened only 2 leafs in 1999. A member of the Borassoid family, like the others it is probably sinking in a root system before devoting much energy to top growth. Undamaged by 26f low, it opened one frond the entire year of 2001. I am beginning to think this palm is more like Brahea armata preferring a less humid year round environment for it to thrive in. This particular palm has since struggled to grow, opening 1 or 2 smallish fronds per yr, is barely living at this date. Another potted palm is doing well in its 2nd yr (still has strap leaves). DEATH NOTE: palms slowly died several yrs later.

Phoenix canariensis

planted spring 1993 at 6 ft total hgt., now past 20 ft overall. Frond production unaccounted for, averages one foot overall hgt per year. Never any cold damage. Began flowering after 1st winter in the ground. Palm had maybe 1.5 ft of above ground stem at time of planting, now has maybe 10 foot at most. Palm has constant problems with scale insects attacking leaflets, graphiola false smut (fungus). Also squirrels love to nest insde the crown at the growing poitn and constantly gnaw off portions of the new fronds beforee they emerge.

Phoenix loureirii var. humilis
Formerly known as P.humilis and confused w/ P.hanceana or taiwaniana, both outdated names. This palm was planted in 2000, maybe 2 ft. overall, now about 7 ft overall. Very slow grower but it is basically ignored receiving no extra irrigation year round. It handles all cold, no damage from any temps or frost to 25f. Resembles a miniature P.canariensis in growth form.

Phoenix pusilla

Grown from seed in summer 2001, relatively quick; no fungal problems that plague other species from dry climates, this appears to be more along lines of reclinata in habit. Has already developed several pinnate leaves. Undamaged (but somewhat sheltered) during 25F advective low. Small flowering palm (several ft of stem) was killed outright at 23F here in 2/96.

Phoenix reclinata
planted fall of 1992 at 3 ft, now in excess of 20 ft overall. Kept trimmed back to a single stem, only one sucker has ever appeared, it was quickly removed. Began flowering after 2nd winter in the ground. Also planted another of this species, this time left on all suckering stems. The growth rate of both palms appears equal, possible the single stem has a bit more clear trunk. The single stem palm is damaged by temps 26F to 23F, both are undamaged by anything higher.

Phoenix roebelenii

one of the most ubiquitous palms in our area despite the fact that it burns from frost when planted in the open. Adapts quickly to full sun or shade, prone to magnesium deficiencies if proper fertilization is not rendered. Slow grower height-wise no matter the placement but makes a great many leafs during a 12 month period. My palm was planted in 11/92, now about 10 ft overall, began flowering in 1999. Foliage burns at 26/27f degrees but it has recovered from 23f low w/ only moderate damage.

Phoenix rupicola

transplanted a 5 ft. specimen in summer 2000 to full sun location. Now about 10 ft overall. Expecting little to no new foliage growth the 1st year. Shows some slight cosmetic damage from following winter, nothing to the bud or emergent spears. Survived 25F advective low with approx. 50% foliar damage, again nothing to bud. Quickly recovers.

Phoenix sylvestris
transplanted a near 4 ft. specimen in 1998, recovering very slowly. But opened up several spears last yr, expect improvement this yr. Roots were severely damaged at time of digging. Easily the best choice of the taller "tree" Phoenix for our area - no problems w/ cold or more importantly, our humidity/climate.

Pinanga coronata (aka kuhlii)

Potted seedling sized palm acquired in 2001, moderate growth in 2002 (3 fronds per stem), developed 2 stems that yr as well. Not tolerant of any frost exposure but comes back from roots if cold damaged, at least down to 26-25F. New leafs emerge with a slight pink-ish cast to them, as well as some striking mottling. Now about 6 ft overall with some stem formed, began flowering in 2007.

Pseudophoenix sargentii ssp. sargentii

The native form, planted summer 1997 at 3 ft. overall, now about 10 ft. Very slow growth as yet, producing one frond in 97 and 98, two fronds in 99. Undamaged by 28F low, slight cosmetic leaf burn from heavy frost and 26f low. Damaged about 25 at most from 25F advective low in 1/03. Also growing ssp. saonae var. saonae. Young palm but very colorful petioles, and slightly faster growth rate than a "normal" sargentii. Again light damage from 25f low but no defoliation, probably the most cold hardy crownshaft palm trialed here so far.

Ptychosperma macarthurii
grown from seed taken off the palm growing in east Orlando for many yrs. Germinated in 2006 now about 3 ft overall with several new offsets. No problems in sheltered spot down to 29f. 

Ravenea glauca
Dainty but tough small palm, has markedly glaucous color to petioles, leaf stems. Good cold tolerance, barely any damage at sheltered 25F in 1/03. Recurved fronds resemble Butia in form. Nothing like R.rivularis (the ubiquitous Majesty palm). Very drought tolerant and handles full sun exposure at any early age. Planted small palm in 2003 at less than 1 ft overall, now around 6 ft.

Ravenea rivularis
planted summer 1996 at close to 6 ft hgt., now about 10 ft overall. Fronds had elongated petioles from being shade grown. Has taken years to adjust to full sun planting site, still exhibits sunburn in hottest months. Produces 4 to 5 fronds per year. Undamaged by 29-28F low, heavily damaged though not defoliated by 26F and 25F in previous winters. Needs constant moisture to look and grow its best if in full sun.

Ravenea xerophila
planted as a sdlg palm in spring 1997. Produced one frond each year since, it has the distinction of being the slowest grower in my collection. Undamaged by 26F low or any accompanying frost. Potted palm in deep container is growing 3 pinnate leafs per yr, but virtually no overall hgt is gained.

Rhapidophyllum hystrix

as with all other natives to this area, it is a slow grower, even slower on drier soils; prefers shade when very small but mine has adapted to full sun at size of 2 ft overall. No special care needed.

Rhapis excelsa var. Tenzan
planted a single stem in the summer of 1997 @ 2.5 ft overall, now about 9 ft. New stems did not form for about 2 years. Undamaged by 26F low. Flowered for the 1st time in summer 1999.

Rhapis subtilis

Slow grower, develops 2-3 stems each yr, dwarf in overall size. Does well in full shade outside, can sunburn easily if left exposed.

Roystonea borinquena

Native to Puerto Rico, this palm grown from habitat seed. New addition in Spring 2003 now about 7 ft overall. Grown in mostly shade so moving at a slower than normal pace but protected from frost exposure.

Roystonea regia = elata
A 12 ft specimen was killed during 2000-01 winters cold, low of 26f severely damaged the foliage, subsequent lingering cold finished it off. After many trials I have come to the conclusion that this is not a palm for areas with annual frosts/freezes unless it has some clear stem already formed; this helps to insulate the palm's growing point. They can recover from the type of cold I receive if it happened every other year or so but with only one year to replace an entire crown they are unable to make it. A 6 ft replacement palm was planted in Spring 2002, it survived 25F low and subsequent defoliation (so far); one frond has emerged as of June.

Sabal causiarum
planted in 2003 as a 3g sized small palm at 2 ft overall; now about 10 ft overall, still developing below ground. No damage at temps down to 25f. Slower grower than domingensis, 6 to 8 fronds per yr. 

Sabal domingensis
germinated from seed in summer 1996 now in excess of 15 ft overall with 6 ft of stem. Is damaged but not defoliated by severe frost and mid 20's lows. Seems to tolerate advective cold but not frost. As with most if not all Sabal palms, growth has quickened once underground development is complete. This is probably the fastest growing of the entire genus. Averages 8 to 10 fronds per yr.

Sabal mauritiiformis

planted spring 1996 at 2.5 ft, now in excess of 12 ft. overall. Produces 5 to 6 fronds per year. Prone to summer sunburn, now growing in partial shade. Was moderately damaged by 26F low during its 1st winter. In the Winter 2000-01 it was damaged by frost (the outer edges of the most exposed fronds); This palm was nearly defoliated by 25F advective cold in 1/03 but is recovering. No visible stem has formed so the growth bud is still well below soil level. Visible stem just now starting to form so growth should quicken somewhat.

Sabal minor
growing two varieties here, "Louisiana" and "Tamaulipas". The latter growing in citrus shade so very slow, the former grew from small seedling planted in 2004 to flowering maturity in 2007.  

Sabal uresana
sprouted Spring 1997 now slightly over 2 ft overall. very slow growth, about 4 or 5 fronds per yr. As with all "tree" Sabal palms the above ground foliage growth is outpaced by below ground root system development, usually until an above ground stem has begun to form. No damage from lows to 25f.

Sabal yapa
planted summer 1996 as small seedling, now 7 ft overall, with 2 ft of stem. This is the "dwarf-leaf" form. Handled full sun at early age. Produces 6 to 8 fronds per year. Slightly damaged by 26F low during its 1st winter, the 26f low/lingering cold from this past winter caused no problems, nor did 25F advective low in 1/03. Much tougher palm than close relative mauritiiformis.

Satakentia liukiuensis
germinated summer 2004 now a small palm planted in summer 2008 just forming pinnate leaves. Lost a large juvenile to 23f lows in the 1990s so not expecting much cold tolerance. No damage at 29f.

Schippia concolor
planted summer 1996 at 1.5 ft, now 6 ft overall. Produces about 6 fronds per year. No response to extra water & fertilizer. Only minor damage from 26F low, undamaged at 28 degrees. Moderate (approx. 50%) frost burn at 23F low but the palm did not defoliate and produced normal growth quickly.

Serenoa repens
my palm is the "white" form, grown from seed off the coast in Martin County. When the leaves first emerge the petiole is almost completely yellow in color. The foliage is almost a silver white (instead of the more common blue-green) and so far it has stayed that way for about one year now. This palm had 2 stems originally, now several others have formed. It has also flowered in Spring 2001 even though still a very small palm. As a native to this area it is perfectly cold hardy and no special care is ever needed. Now has several ft of "trunk" formed on some of the stems.

Syagrus amara
planted fall 1996 at 3 ft, now 10 ft overall. Produces 4 to 5 fronds per year. Very light damage around 28/29f, heavy below that range. Takes full summer sun at an early age. Fronds stay undivided until about the 5th or 6th year. Just starting to form some woody stem.

Syagrus botryophora
it resembles a giant Lytocaryum in foliage form. Planted in semi-shade to help w/ frost exposure, approximately 6 ft overall. It took a 26f low okay but subsequent frost/lingering cold from this past winter caused some major damage (over 50%) to the canopy. Palm never fully recovered and was killed by 25F advective cold in 1/03. A completely healthy specimen likely would have survived this but defoliated to be sure. The incredibly fast growth rate (close if not equal that of romanzoffiana) makes this species worth trying again here.

Syagrus "costae" hybrid
this is the coronata X oleracea cross. Newer info asserts this is natural hyrbid of coronata and cearensis. Planted spring 1996 at 9 ft, now approx. 15 ft overall. Produced around 7 fronds per yr. Foliage is tender to slightest frost showing minor damage at 28 or 29F, moderate burn at 26f but not total defoliation even down to 25F advective freeze.  Flowers throughout the yr but sets seed erratically.

Syagrus picrophylla
Small palm about 1.5 ft. overall was planted in summer 2000; some slight tip burn and yellowing from last winter's cold it is shaded and thus protected by citrus. Slow growth initially.

Syagrus romanzoffiana
planted fall 1992 at 3 ft, now well past 20 ft overall. 1st spathe appeared 12/97, it set no seed; 2nd spathe set seed in summer 1998. Estimating 6 years from germination until reproducing. No foliage damage from 23F low but some minor bud rot due to rain that preceded and followed that particular freeze. Produces 8 to 9 fronds per year gaining an average of 3 foot of clear stem each year. The fastest growth rate ever for a juvenile palm in the garden. This specimen is sometimes referred to as the "Silver Queen" and is from the Santa Catarina province of Brazil, perhaps the coldest area of its entire habitat. Many seedling palms from this tree are around here w/ no cold damage at all.

Syagrus ruschiana

germinated in 2005 still has strap leaves in 2008. No offsets as yet. No cold damage at 29f.   

Syagrus sancona
planted summer 1997 at 3 ft, now 9 ft overall. Undamaged by 28 and 29F lows. Slightly damaged by 26f low, subsequent frosts also caused problems but it was not defoliated. A 25F advective low in 1/03 nearly defoliated the palm, and it has never quite recovred, grwoing but 1 or 2 fronds per yr.

Syagrus vagans
planted fall 1998 at sdlg size; listed at time of purchase as being 5 years old. Produced 3 leafs in 1999, a very slow grower. Undamaged by 28 or 29F lows, very slight spotting from 26f and heavy frost, even more damage from 25F advective freeze so not very tolerant of any frost or real cold. Finally producing its first offset in 2008.

Thrinax excelsa
planted as small seedling in 2004 now aboout 6 ft overall. No damage from lows down to 29f.  

Thrinax morrisii
two separate palms, the 1st planted Spring 1996 at 1 ft, the 2nd planted Spring 1997 at 2.5 ft. Both palms roughly equal in overall height, about 8 ft each. Appears to be a relatively fast grower for a native species, producing 8-9 fronds each year. Silvery undersides begins to develop when the palm gets past 3 ft overall. No cold damage by 26 and 27 f lows, very minimal from 25F to 23F lows. Very drought tolerant, needs no extra care, I add in dolomitic limestone once a year as a concession to its alkaline native habitat. Neither palm has ever developed any nutritional problems. An underrated "tropical" palm for this region.

Thrinax parviflora
growing in shade of live oak, heavy damage from 25f low. Planted as small seedling in 2002 now about 5 ft overall. 

Thrinax radiata
despite being a mainland native this Florida species is nowhere near as cold hardy as its more southerly/island dwelling cousin T.morrisii. Was severely damaged by 27F-25F lows yet was able to survive. Even though foliage is very tender the palm recovers quickly in under one growing season from any damage. Very drought tolerant, no special care needed, seems to prefer mostly shaded areas while small. Planted Summer 1994 at seedling size, is now 7 ft overall, obviously very slow growth but the annual battles w/ cold have obviously set it back a bit.

Trachycarpus latisectus
This is the more "tropical" species of the genus, thus supposedly more suitable for this climate than fortunei. So far so good it is growing just fine albeit very slowly (3 to 4 fronds per yr). Germinated in 2000 it now has a full crown of fan leaves, is about 3 ft overall. No problems with cold (down to 25F) either.

Trithrinax brasiliensis
New palm acquired in summer 2002. Two older, larger palms (with 2 ft stems) died during summer (one from apparent bud rot, the other a transplant "victim"). No damage from any freeze or frost down to 25F, even planted in open full sun. Also owned palms under the moniker T.acanthocoma, no discernable difference was discovered between them. have lost T.campestris during the summers due to constant wet weather.

Veitchia winin
planted in 2004 from a 7g size, about 3 ft overall. Now about 10 ft overall, shows slight damage in any cold but mostly green after 29f low.  

Wallichia densiflora
small dwarfish clumping palm, prefers some shade. Has developed waxy underside coating even as a 3 leaf seedling. Planted in 2003 now about 6 ft overall. No damage from a shaded thus protected 26f degrees but was slightly (25%) damaged from 25F advective low in 1/03. Began clumping in 2006, one offset per yr.

Wallichia disticha
Planted in Spring 2001 at 5 ft. overall, now close to 12 ft. Was heavily damaged (in excess of 50%) during 25F advective freeze of 1/03; but has recovered fine. Probably has about 2 or 3 yrs left in it's life cycle.  Planted in full sun so the canopy keeps its "two-plane" look.

Washingtonia "filibusta"
a hybrid showing some characteristics of filifera (green petiole, open crown of large leafs that quickly brown when reaching horizontal level with the ground). Very fast grower ala robusta, it developed nearly 40 fronds in 1999 alone, then became too tall for me to accurately keep count. Planted in 12/95 at 3 ft, is now in excess of 30 ft overall. No extra care given, no nutritional problems ever. It does develop dark green spots in the foliage during severe frosts, these disappear as temperature rises.

Wodyetia bifurcata
planted Spring 1996 at 6 ft, is about 15 ft. Was setback during a transplant about 2 years ago but in 1999 it resumed normal growth. This palm takes full sun conditions at an early age and is very drought tolerant for a tropical feather palm. Shows foliage burn at the slightest frost (around 28f ), anything over that its okay. Worth noting it was undamaged by a 26f low w/ no frost one past winter (subsequent frosts nearly defoliated the palm). The palm was defoliated by 25F advective freeze in 1/03, took several months but did recover.

Zombia antillarum
planted Spring 1996, maybe one foot at its tallest point. Now about 2.5 ft overall. Very slow grower, clumps and has split into 3 separate stems. Each stem began developing spines along the lower leaf bases, after being in the ground about a year. Burns at the slightest frost (anything under 29f degrees). Was killed in 2000-01 Winter (26f low w/ many frosts) even though it was planted underneath the largest Bismarckia so frost exposure was minimized some. New palm planted in summer 2006 as small palm just forming palmate leaves. Now about 3 ft overall.